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Showing posts with label Bahasa Inggris. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Bahasa Inggris. Show all posts

Descriptive Text About Place

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Descriptive Text About Place. Dalam Bahasa Inggris terdapat macam-macam jenis teks, di bawah ini adalah beberapa jenis teks yang harus anda ketahui, berikut ini adalah 5 jenis teks beserta penjelasan sederhana dari teks tersebut :

1. Descriptive Text
Teks Descriptive adalah teks yang menggambarkan seseorang, benda atau tempat tertentu sehingga pembaca dapat membayangkan seolah-olah yang diceritakan itu benar-benar nyata.

Struktur Teks:
  • Identification / Pengenalan: ciri-ciri seseorang, suatu benda atau tempat tertentu yang akan dideskripsikan.
  • Description / Deskripsi: menggambarkan ciri-ciri seseorang, benda atau tempat tersebut, misalnya bentuk, ukuran, warna, asal, kegemaran dan ciri khusus lainnya.

2. Narrative Text
Teks Narative adalah teks yang bercerita mengikuti alur waktu. Ciri naratif adalah adanya unsur konflik (masalah) dan resolusi (penyelesaian masalah).
Struktur Teks:
  • Pengenalan latar: tokoh, waktu, dan tempat.
  • Pengembangan konflik.
  • Penyelesaian konflik.

3. Procedur Text
Teks Prosedure adalah teks yang menjelaskan dengan jelas cara membuat atau melakukan sesuatu.

Struktur Teks:
Goal/Aim/Tujuan – Materials/Tools/Bahan/Alat – Steps/Methods/Langkah

4. Recount Text
Teks Recount adalah teks yang menceritakan kembali kejadian yang telah terjadi berurutan dengan menggunakan keterangan waktu yang jelas pada masa lampau

Struktur teks :
  • Orientation : Pendahuluan yaitu memberikan informasi orang atau benda yang melakukan atau yang terlibat di dalamnya, serta waktu, tempat, situasi, dan lain-lain;
  • Event 1, Even 2… : Rangkaian peristiwa yang terjadi, yang biasanya disampaikan secara urut.
  • Re-orientation : Kesimpulan dari rangkaian peristiwa yang terjadi. Reorientation tidak selalu ada pada teks recount.

5. Report Text
Teks Report memiliki kemiripan dengan teks deskriptif, teks report memberikan gambaran umum tentang sesuatu tidak mendetail seperti pada teks Deskriptif. Tujuan Komunikatif: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis.
Stuktur Teks :
  • General Classification : (klasifikasi umum, yaitu menggolongkan atau menentukan secara umum termasuk kepada golongan mana.
  • Description : yaitu uraian deskripsi atau gambarannya bagia-bagian yang umum ada padanya, derajatnya, dam sifat-sifatnya. Biasanya berupa uraian umum.

Berikut ini beberapa contoh Descriptive text abut place.
The Borobudur Temple
Borobudur is Hindu – Budhist temple. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.

Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular.



Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and starways. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor, Cambodia. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people.

Lake Toba
Lake Toba is a lake and supervolcano. The lake is 100 kilometres long, 30 kilometres wide, and up to 505 meters (1,666 ft) deep. Located in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra with a surface elevation of about 900 metres (2,953 ft). It is the largest lake in Indonesia and the largest volcanic lake in the world.

Lake Toba is the site of a massive supervolcanic eruption estimated at VEI 8 that occurred 69,000 to 77,000 years ago, representing a climate-changing event.



It is the largest known explosive eruption on Earth in the last 25 million years. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, it had global consequences for human populations: it killed most humans living at that time and is believed to have created a population bottleneck in central east Africa and India, which affects the genetic make up of the human world-wide population to the present.

This hypothesis is not widely accepted because evidence is lacking for a decline or extinction of other animals, including species that are sensitive to changes in the environment. It has been accepted that the eruption of Toba led to a volcanic winter with a worldwide decrease in temperature between 3 to 5 °C (5.4 to 9.0 °F), and up to 15 °C (27 °F) in higher latitudes.

The Kuta Beach
Kuta is administratively a district and subdistrict/village in southern Bali, Indonesia. A former fishing village, it was one of the first towns on Bali to see substantial tourist development, and as a beach resort remains one of Indonesia's major tourist destinations. It is known internationally for its long sandy beach, varied accommodation, many restaurants and bars, and many renowned surfers who visit from Australia. It is located near Bali's Ngurah Rai Airport.

Kuta was the site of the October 12, 2002 1st Bali bombing (202 killed) and the October 1, 2005 2nd Bali bombing (26 killed).

The Balinese Provincial Government have taken the view that the preservation of the Balinese culture, natural resources and wildlife are of primary importance in the development of the island. To this end they have limited tourist development to the peninsula on the extreme southern aspect of the island; Kuta beach is on the western side of this peninsula and Sanur is on the east. To the north of the peninsula no new tourist development is supposedly permitted.

To the south, Kuta Beach extends beyond the airport into Jimbaran. Other nearby towns and villages include Seseh (6.4 nm), Denpasar (4.5 nm), Ujung (1.8 nm), Pesanggaran (2.0 nm), Kedonganan (2.9 nm) and Tuban (1.0 nm).

Mount Merapi

Mount Merapi is an active stratovolcano located on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. It is located approximately 28 kilometres (17 mi) north of the large Yogyakarta city, and thousands of people live on the flanks of the volcano, with villages as high as 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) above sea level.

Smoke can be seen emerging from the mountaintop at least 300 days a year, and several eruptions have caused fatalities.


Pyroclastic flow from a large explosion killed 27 people on 22 November in 1994, mostly in the town of Muntilan, west of the volcano. Another large eruption occurred in 2006, shortly before the Yogyakarta earthquake. In light of the hazards that Merapi poses to populated areas, it has been designated as one of the Decade Volcanoes.

On 25 October 2010 the Indonesian government raised the alert for Mount Merapi to its highest level and warned villagers in threatened areas to move to safer ground. People living within a 20 km (12 mi) zone were told to evacuate. Officials said about 500 volcanic earthquakes had been recorded on the mountain over the weekend of 23–24 October, and that the magma had risen to about 1 kilometre (3,300 ft) below the surface due to the seismic activity. On the afternoon of 25 October 2010 Mount Merapi erupted lava from its southern and southeastern slopes.

The mountain was still erupting on 30 November 2010 however due to lowered eruptive activity on 3 December 2010 the official alert status was reduced to level 3. The volcano is now 2930 metres high, 38 metres lower than before the 2010 eruptions.

National Monument
The National Monument, or simply Monas is a 132 m (433 ft) tower in the centre of Merdeka Square, Central Jakarta, symbolizing the fight for Indonesia. It is the national monument of the Republic of Indonesia, built to commemorate the struggle for Indonesian independence.

Construction began in 1961 under the direction of President Sukarno. Monas was opened to the public in 1975. It is topped by a flame covered with gold foil.


The construction of Monas proceeded in three stages. The first period, from 1961/1962–1964/1965 began with the official start of construction on 17 August 1961 with Sukarno ceremonially driving in the first concrete pile. A of total of 284 piles were used for the foundation block. A further 360 piles were driven in for the museum foundations, with work being completed in March 1962. The walls of the museum in the base were completed by October.

Construction of the obelisk than commenced and was finished in August 1963. Work in the second stage, from 1966 to 1968 was delayed by shortages of funding and the aftermath of the 30 September Movement coup attempt. In the final phase, from 1969–1976, the dioramas for the historical museum were added. Problems remained once construction was complete, and work was needed to solve problems with water leaking into the museum. Monas was officially opened to the public on 12 July 1975. The location of Monas is known as Merdeka Square.

Descriptive Text About Animal

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Teks Deskriptif yaitu teks yang menjelaskan gambaran seseorang atau benda. Tujuannya adalah untuk menggambarkan atau mengungkapkan orang, tempat atau benda tertentu. Bisa dikatakan juga bahwa Descriptive text adalah teks yang menjelaskan tentang seperti apakah orang atau benda yang dideskripsikan, baik bentuknya, sifat-sifatnya, jumlahnya dan lain-lain.

Struktur Descriptive Text (generic structure) adalah :
  1. Identification (identifikasi) adalah pendahuluan , berupa gambaran umum tentang suatu topik.
  2. Description (deskripsi) adalah berisi ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki benda, tempat, atau orang yang dideskripsikan.
Berikut ini contoh beberapa descriptive text

Tiger
Tigers are recognized by their orange, black , and white stripe pattern. A tiger’s front paws are large and strong to bring down prey. The front paws of a tiger have five toes each. Tigers are famous for their thick, orange-tawny coats, gleaming amber-gold eyes, black to rich brown stripes, and long, whip-like tail. Most cats don’t like to swim, but on a hot day Tigers love to swim. All tigers have a similar marking on their forehead,which resembles the Chinese symbol Wang, meaning King. Tigers do not purr.Unlike the domestic cat the tigers pupils are round.
The tiger’s foot print is known as the pug mark. There are five toes on a tigers forefeet and four on its hind feet. A tiger’s night vision is six times greater than a humans. A tiger’s canine teeth can grow up to three inches long and would be capable of crunching through the vertebrae of any creature on this earth. Adult tigers have thirty teeth.On average a tigers tail is around four feet long or half the length of its body. The tail gives the tiger extra balance when running and is also used to communicate to other tigers. The tendons in a tiger’s leg are so strong that an animal has been known to remain standing after it has been shot dead.The Sumatran tiger has the most pronounced ruff around its neck. The South China tiger has the fewest stripes. The fore limbs of a tiger are more powerful than the hind limbs for grabbing large prey.

What is a Butterfly?
Butterflies are beautiful, flying insects with large scaly wings.like all insects, they have six legs, three body parts, a pair of antennae, and compound eyes. The three body parts are the head, thorax (the chest), and abdomen (the tail end). The four wings and the six legs of the butterfly are connected to the thorax. The thorax contains the muscles that make the legs and wings move.

Butterflies ere very good fliers. They have two pairs, of large wings covered with colourful scales. Butterflies and moths are the only.
insects that have scaly wings. The wings are connected to the butterfly’s thorax (mid-section). Butterflies can only fly if their body temperature is above 27 degrees Centigrade. Butterflies sun themselves to warm up in cool weather. As butterflies get older, the colour of the wings fades and the wings become ragged.

Butterflies ere very good fliers. They have two pairs, of large wings covered with colourful scales. Butterflies and moths are the only insects that have scaly wings. The wings are connected to the butterfly’s thorax (mid-section). Butterflies can only fly if their body temperature is above 27 degrees Centigrade. Butterflies sun themselves to warm up in cool weather. As butterflies get older, the colour of the wings fades and the wings become ragged.

The speed varies among butterfly species (the poisonous varieties are slower than noun – poisonous varieties). The fastest butterflies can fly at about 50 kilometers per hour (kph) or faster. Slow flying butterflies fly about 8 kph.

My Cat
Grely is my beautiful gray Persian cat. He walks with pride and grace, performing a dance of disdain as he slowly lifts and lowers each paw with the delicacy of a ballet dancer. His pride, however, does not extend to his appearance, for he spends most of his time indoors watching television and growing fat.

He enjoys TV commercials, especially those for Meow Mix and 9 Lives. His familiarity with cat food commercials has led him to reject generic brands of cat food in favor of only the most expensive brands.
Gregory is as finicky about visitors as he is about what he eats, befriending some and repelling others. He may snuggle up against your ankle, begging to be petted, or he may imitate a skunk and stain your favorite trousers. Gregory does not do this to establish his territory, as many cat experts think, but to humiliate me because he is jealous of my friends.

After my guests have fled, I look at the old fleabag snoozing and smiling to himself in front of the television set, and I have to forgive him for his obnoxious, but endearing, habits.

Komodo Dragons
Do you know what is the largest lizard? This lizard is called komodo. It lives in the scrub and woodland of a few Indonesian islands.

Komodo dragon is the world’s heaviest lizard, weighing 150 pounds or more. The largest Komodo ever measured was more than 10 feet (3 meters) long and weighed 366 pounds (166 kg) but the average size of komodo in the wild is about 8 feet (2.5 meters) long and 200 pounds (91 kg),
Komodo has gray scaly skin, a pointed snout, powerful limbs and a muscular tail. They use their keen sense of smell to locate decaying animal remains from several miles away. They also hunt other lizards as well as large mammals and are sometimes cannibalistic.

The Komodo dragon’s teeth are almost completely covered by its gums. When it feeds, the gums bleed, creating an ideal culture for virulent bacteria. The bacteria that live in the Komodo dragon’s saliva causes septicemia, or blood poisoning, in its victims. A dragon will bite its prey, then follow it until the animal is too weak to carry on

This lizard species is threatened by hunting, loss of prey species and habitat loss.

Baboon
Baboons are African and Arabian Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae. The five species are some of the largest nonhominoid members of the primate order; only the mandrill and the drill are larger. Previously, the closely related gelada (genus Theropithecus) and the two species (mandrill and drill) of genus Mandrillus were grouped in the same genus, and these Old World monkeys are still often referred to as baboons in everyday speech.
Baboons are terrestrial (ground dwelling) and are found in open savannah, open woodland and hills across Africa. Their diets are omnivorous, but mostly herbivorous, yet they eat insects and occasionally prey on fish, shellfish, hares, birds, vervet monkeys, and small antelopes. They are foragers and are active at irregular times throughout the day and night. They can raid human dwellings, and in South Africa, they have been known to prey on sheep and goats.

Baboons in captivity have been known to live up to 45 years, while in the wild their life expectancy is about 30 years. ;Baboons are able to acquire orthographic processing skills, which form part of the ability to read.

Rabbit
A rabbit is a small mammal with a short tail and pointed ears. Rabbits live in burrows in the ground. Each burrow is the home of a single family. The first fossils which can be attributed to this family came from North America but now they are found in every part of the world. Compared to is small body, rabbit has large sized ears.

A rabbit is a weak and timid animal and is always surrounded by many enemies. Therefore nature has gifted it with large ears to help it to hear even the fun of drop sound. The large area of the ear.

catches almost every sound wave produced in the air and transfers them into the inner ear. This makes the rabbit to detect its enemies in time and run to safety zones.

Rabbit habitats include meadows, woods, forests, grasslands, deserts and wetlands. Rabbits live in groups, and the best known species, the European rabbit, lives in underground burrows, or rabbit holes. A group of burrows is called a warren.

More than half the world's rabbit population resides in North America. They are also native to southwestern Europe, Southeast Asia, Sumatra, some islands of Japan, and in parts of Africa and South America. They are not naturally found in most of Eurasia, where a number of species of hares are present. Rabbits first entered South America relatively recently, as part of the Great American Interchange. Much of the continent has just one species of rabbit, the tapeti, while most of South America's southern cone is without rabbits.

Elephant
Elephant is one of the biggest animal in the world. This animal is from Africa. Elephant has a big body. Its color is grey. It has four legs. And its legs are very big and very strong. Elephant has two wide ears. Elephant has two eyes that the eyes are black and small enough. It has a trunk, and the trunk is long. Elephant has two long/pointed tooth and the name is tusk. And this tusk, trunk and legs can be a weapon of elephant use to defense it self from the other animal. And elephant has a short tail.
Elephant is a herbivore. It like to eat some plants such as grass, small trees, leaves, etc. Because elephant is a big animal so it need to eat so much food to fill its need, and elephant like so much to eat. Elephant is a tame animal. But if it become to angry it can become a dangerous animal.

Elephant usually does its activity at morning until evening, if the night is coming, it usually goes to sleep. Elephant is the strongest animal in the world. Elephant can pull down a big tree, because of that some animals are very afraid to elephant. Although elephant is a big animal, elephant can run about 40 - 60 km/s, so it is fast enough. The elephant’s habitat is at tropic area such as Africa, Indonesia, etc. Elephant is a mammal so it has baby not egg and the body of the female elephant is bigger than the body of the male elephant.

My Dog
I have two pets, over all are dogs. The first dog‘s name is Blacky and the second is Chico. That is blacky, he has black and white fur. Thats one is Chico with brown, white, and black fur. Because of his fur, several people not called it dog, but cat.

Although they all are dog, they have a different habits. Blacky likes walking and going to anywhere by motorcycle. He always jump to my motorcycle when I sit on the motorcycle.
Blacky likes select his food before he eat it, he will not eat his food when his food was in bad conditions or he dont like it, he ever not eat for one day because there’s not food he like. He just eat bakso, meat, and bone, he never eat dog‘s food because he doesn’t like the taste And then Blacky just sleep on sofa or on his bed, and he usually barking when someone come to my house.

Chico are very like to eat, he always hungry and hungry again. He was eat 6 time or more on a day, so he’s body going fat. He also sleep anywhere when he was sleepy. Then he was scary when someone or another dog (except blacky) come to my house so he was run away and hide on my room.
Monkey
Monkey is lively and clever animal. It has long tail, two legs, and two hands. Monkey has feather that very dense. It also has long arms for climbing. Because it is very easy to climb for monkey.

Monkey has climbing habit. Monkey can climb on a singgle tree to another tree. In  addition to climbing, it also likes to scratchhis body. Monkeys are known to learn and use tools to help in getting food. A favorite food monkey is banana. Banana is the food of monkeys everyday. Monkey very likes banana.
Monkey habitat is the forest. but there are also monkeys that lived with human, the monkeys live and under growth daily activitiies with human. Uniquely thousands of monkeys live in harmony with human neighbours every day there is just a come and give food herd this monkey. Out of habit, the monkeys here are very tame.

Pidato Bahasa Inggris

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Pidato adalah sebuah kegiatan berbicara di depan umum atau berorasi untuk menyatakan pendapatnya, atau memberikan gambaran tentang suatu hal. Pidato biasanya dibawakan oleh seorang yang memberikan orasi-orasi, dan pernyataan tentang suatu hal/peristiwa yang penting dan patut diperbincangkan. Pidato adalah salah satu teori dari pelajaran bahasa indonesia. Pidato biasanya digunakan oleh seorang pemimpin untuk memimpin dan berorasi di depan banyak anak buahnya atau khalayak ramai.

Pidato umumnya melakukan satu atau beberapa hal berikut ini :
  1. Mempengaruhi orang lain agar mau mengikuti kemauan kita dengan suka rela.
  2. Memberi suatu pemahaman atau informasi pada orang lain.
  3. Membuat orang lain senang dengan pidato yang menghibur sehingga orang lain senang dan puas dengan ucapan yang kita sampaikan.
Berikut ini beberapa contoh pidato dalam bahasa Inggris

1. Pidato Tentang Lingkungan Hidup 
Good morning all, Alhamdulillah by the grace of Allah the Almighty God, now I can stand here in front of you all. At this moment we can meet in good condition. Now I will tell you about "The importance of protecting the environment"

Plants, people, animals and the environment are interdependence. Plants need a good environment for growing, animals need plants to eat, and human need everything to survive. Everything went as usual until the human who destroying it. No one of living things on the earth who can destroying it except the human.

Globalization may already be familiar to you . Globalization can accelerate the rate of economy anywhere. Technology developed over the years become a tool that can easily human works. Even to support it many new technologies are born for example a computer. Unfortunately, the speed of current technological improvement not followed by protecting awareness of surrounding environment. Massive oil drilling caused by the human vehicle is increasing along with increasing human populations from year to year. Finally, the waste produced from the vehicles, become one of the main factors polluted air around us. A lot of environmental damage that we often hear, for example, global warming ,acid rain, greenhouse effect, environmental pollution and so on.

The greenhouse effect caused by excessive carbon dioxide gas and causes global warming makes the earth hotter. The next phenomenon is acid rain, although it can prevent global warming but acid rain is more dangerous. humans are the main causes ! Start From now let's keep our environment for our grandchildren one day later. because no matter how small work you do, will be felt by our children and grandchildren one day later.

This is enough from me . sorry if there was a mistake, thank you for your attention.

2. Pidato Hari Kemerdekaan RI 
Indonesia’s Independence  Day
Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb
First, I want to say thank you to Allah, who give me a time to speech in this special moment. Also to Prophet Muhammad, his families, and his friends.

The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially proclaimed at 10.00 a.m. sharp on
soekarno
Friday, August 17, 1945. The declaration marked the start of the five year diplomatic and armed-resistance of the Indonesian National Revolution, fighting against the forces of the Netherlands until the latter officially acknowledged Indonesia's independence in 1949. In 2005, the Netherlands declared that they recognized Indonesian independence is in 1945, not 1949.

Every year on 17th August, Indonesia’s celebrate the Independence Day. It’s very fun. There are a lot of contest, like Panjat Pinang. And in Istana Merdeka, they are having ceremony. May be, some of you go to have celebrate. You must be spirit in the Independence Day, you look our hero, and they are held the pass to gain freedom. And us, we’re as the student, we have to have spirit to celebrate the Independence Day. If you confess you’re Indonesia’s people, you must care about Indonesia, the Independence Day of Indonesia, and all of Indonesia you must like, because it’s your country.

Ok, may be enough from me. Sorry If I had some mistakes.

Wassalammualaikum Wr. Wb

3. Pidato Kelulusan Sekolah 
Assalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh.
Good day to all.

Principal Mr. I respect, Mr. and Mrs. I respect Teachers, Parents Class ... which I respect, my friends that I love.

First of all, let us praise and gratitude prayed to Allah's presence. because of the grace and guidance we are given his health to come together on this day. Today, we gather today in the context of separation once graduation day celebration Class ... students.

Teachers-Teachers and Friends, I really do not feel time pass so quickly. We have six years of learning and studying at this school. So many lessons and knowledge that we got. All this is very useful for us.

Now, graduation day finally arrived. After six years we have learned much from Mr. and Mrs. Teacher, I'm as representative of my friends Class ... to thank our teachers dear. All the lessons and advice that we get we will always remember.

We also convey an apology for all the mistakes and the mischief we have ever done for us went to school here. We recall all the students who had Dad and Mom taught.

Do not forget our gratitude also goes to our beloved parents who were present on this occasion. Parents who are always giving love and encouragement to us until we are able to graduate and celebrate on this day.

To my friends, all the events we experience in this school, happy, sad, and glad will always remind us of this beloved school. After graduation, we should always be encouraged to remain diligent in learning to achieve your goals.

Finally, I as a representative of my friends Class ... wanted to say goodbye to our beloved school. We will always remember this school. Many of us Thank you.

Wassalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh.

4. Pidato Panitia Isra Mi'raj

Chairman of the Committee for Commemoration speech Isra 'Mi'raj Prophet Muhammad SAW
Dear Mr........
Dear Mr. Chairman RW / RT ... ..
Dear Mr ... (The elder),
Ladies and presence that we respect,

Assalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh.
Thanks for the opportunity given to me to convey a message from the events of the greatness of our prophet "Muhammad." Let us praise the previous and gratitude to Allah SWT, for the blessings and grace bestowed on us all, so especially on this night we were all given the pleasure of physical and spiritual health to work together and listen to lectures religion as spiritual nourishment, to commemorate "Isra 'and Mi` raj "Great Prophet Muhammad.

Further, I extend our thanks to the maximum to all attendees who sincerely willing to ease the measures take time, to seek knowledge by listening to religious lectures which will soon be delivered by Mr. ... (Which Will Provide Speech / Lecture).

Ladies and gentlemen, as the Muslims for granted we know the closer our master the Great Prophet Muhammad. Overall it was simply to increase our taqwa to Allah SWT. By doing so we can get closer to Allah SWT, to better carry out his command and away from all the banned by God.

Warning in the name of the Chairman of the Committee of Isra` 'Miraj, we hope that the knowledge of our religion, especially problems Isra' Mi'raj this will truly be comprehended by the audience, could henceforth be carried out in accordance with the guidance that has been taught by Him to all of us as His people.

Special to Mr ... (Which Will Provide Speech / Lecture) which we thank you profusely for Mr sincerity in providing additional insight to our religion on this night, good deeds you can be accepted and rewarded by Allah with great reward. Amen.

Finally, the wa billahitaufiq walhidayah,

Wassalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh.

5. Pidato Hari Kartini 
Dear Mr and Mrs ...
Dear Mr. Chairman of the RW ...
Mr Chairman of the RT ...
Adolescents and youth peer territory ...
Ladies and noble presence,

Assalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh.

Prosperous and happy congratulations also goes to our audience and the presence of a religion other than Islam.

On this happy morning, let us reflect and pray together for a moment, hopefully we are up this morning still blessed with happiness by God the Almighty, given the power to give thanks always, the grace and guidance of Almighty God. Gratitude, let us prove to keep running and stay away from the obligation imposed by Allah the Lord is the Most Just.

Furthermore, on this blessed morning, we should also grateful for the opportunity given by God the Almighty God's love, who by his grace we can also jointly held a ceremony commemorating the "Day of Kartini." Kartini's name, is not foreign. Even in this present life had etched an attitude, especially the attitude of the mother, the attitude of the adolescent, who reflects the ideals of the noble mother of Kartini.

As a woman who certainly could not leave his nature as a woman, it now increasingly appears that the fellow seated himself as a warrior nation, has been able to put ourselves Indonesian woman as a fighter who did not want to say number two on the men.

That being assertive women that directly reflect the ideals of Kartini's nobility. That attitude also shows how the Indonesian human rights is addressed. Especially a woman's right to participate in putting yourself to build your nation of Indonesia.

It is not exaggerating if women today are able to talk parallel to the menfolk. Even in our village has a lot of women who rank even higher than some of the brothers. This shows that our nation, especially the women really have realized how important the role and ability of women in upholding the life of the nation, state and society.

We always commemorate Kartini Day every year. But should not at times when we display this warning just reserved for the work and women. But more than that, hopefully every day, every period of the Indonesian women still struggling and still aspire, as a nation that perfumed name.

May God always bless us, especially the women of Indonesia in establishing national and state life. May the glorious women grow, grow strong in keeping the big names of the nation, state, society, and do not forget, may remain victorious in keeping the family name. Amen!

Suffice it used to welcome us all, billahitaufiq walhidayah,

Wassalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh.

6. Pidato tentang Global Warming
There is little doubt that the planet is warming. Over the last century, the planets temperature has risen by around 1 degree fahrenheit (0.6 of a degree celsius). The warmest since the mid 1800’s was the 1990s. The hottest years recorded were 1997, 1998, 2001, 2002, 2003.

The United Nations panel on climate change projects that the global temperatures will rise 3-10 degrees fahrenheit by the century’s end - enough to have the polar caps all but melted. If the ice caps melt, a vast majority of our countries borders will be under water. Monuments and great buildings, as well as homes and lives will be under water, including New York City.

So now we know what some of the causes are for global warming, how can we as individuals do our part to help save the planet?

The answer is simpler than you may think. You don’t have to go miles away from home to protest, or spend masses of money. If you try to follow the few simple steps that I shall now give you, you will have started to help us all.

Firstly, plant a tree. This could be easier than it sounds. Join or help out a local wildlife group and ask to plant a tree. Trees, when fully grown, will help keep the planet cooler. On the same point, you could protest against the demolition of the rainforests. This is the same principle, we need the trees to cool our planet and yet they are chopping them down to create roads or homes.

Something as simple as walking instead of taking the car will help reduce pollution. As well as stopping pollution, you are giving yourself exercise, something important for our bodies. So the next time you get into your car, or your motorbike, think - do I have to make this journey by vehicle or can I walk?

When you are at home, and your getting a little cold. Put a jumper on and do not adjust the heating. The extra heat produced by our homes also affects the planet. So try wearing an extra layer in winter.

If possible, buy your fruit and vegetables from local suppliers. And try to avoid imported goods. The more foreign food that we import the more pollution from aeroplanes and boats it will create.

Keeping to the speed limit can also help the environment. The more you speed the more petrol you are going to use, making the pollution higher. Also, SUV’s make about six times their own weight in CO2 each year. A small efficient diesel car covering the same distance not only uses much less fuel; it makes two thirds less.

If possible use solar energy, after all it is free; all you need to buy is the equipment. You can get much of your hot water and heating from the sun and even generate electricity.

Reduce, reuse and recycle. Only buy what you need; don’t stock the cupboards with things you may or may not use. Reuse whatever you can, like containers and paper, and recycle what you cannot reuse. It really is as simple as that.

Finally turning off unused sources of power such as televisions and heaters will help the environment, as well as save you money.

If everybody stuck to these rules, we would be doing a great thing by protecting the earth. So please take into consideration what I have said, and try to do your part. After all, it will be our next generation that will feel the effects.

7. Pidato Pengaruh Internet
Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb

To the teachers who I respect, to my beloved friend, and everyone who attending in this place, thank you very much to give me time so I can stand up here in front all of you to deliver a speech.

On this happy morning, let us reflect and pray together for a moment, hopefully we are up this morning still blessed with happines by God the Almighty, given the power to give thanks always. And let us prove to keep running and stay away from the obligation imposed by Allah the Lord is the Most Just.

Well, today, in this very special moment, let me stand here to deliver a speech about Internet Effect for Our Life.

As we know, nowadays, Internet is very important for us. But, actually, what is the meaning of Internet ? The Internet is combined worldwide network of computers that form a global information network system. The history of Internet started in 1969 when Defense Advance Research Projects Agency (DAPRA) decided to conduct research on how to connect a number of computer. Actually, Internet originally used in military and university. But now, general public around the world can enjoy, or access them very easily. The number of Internet users in one country can be the size of the country's technological progress.

People are always hanging out around the world with its luxury world of tech, luxury, and practical, the Internet can be found wherever we are. Or if not, in every corner of the city must have a stall that sells Internet services or commonly called a cafe. Information World without Borders, that's how people call it. With the Internet, access to delivery information in the world can be retrieved easily while turning the hand or eye blink.

Present Perfect Tense

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Present Perfect Tense. Present prefect tense adalah suatu bentuk kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris yang menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang telah dikerjakan (pada masa lampau). Masa lampau bisa sekarang, baru saja, tadi, kemarin. minggu lalu, bulan lalu, tahun lalu dan sebagainya. Waktu yang demikian itu menggunakan bentuk present perfect. Biasanya kalimat present perfect ditandai misalnya dengan kata: since 1995, three times, two times, dan lain sebagainya. Present Perfect Tense secara umum digunakan untuk :
  1. Untuk menekankan sudah/belum.
  2. Untuk menekankan sudah berapa kali.
  3. Untuk menekankan lama waktu kejadian/aktivitas.
Rumus:

Contoh Bentuk Nominal :
She has been shot by me just now.(Dia sudah tertembak olehku tadi);
Has she been shot by me just now ?
She has not been shoot by me just now.

Contoh Bentuk Verbal :
They have sung Indonesia Raya together.
Have they sung Indonesia Raya together ?
They have not sung Indonesia Raya together.

Penggunaan Present Perfect Tense :
  • Digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan atau peristiwa yang terjadi pada waktu lampau dan masih berhubungan dengan waktu sekarang.

Contoh: Mr. Galih has been here since morning.(Tuan Galih sudah berada di sini sejak pagi).
He has married her for nineteen years.(Dia telah menikahinya selama 19 tahun)

  • Digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu perbuatan ulangan pada waktu yang tidak tertentu. Dalam hal ini sering memakai kata-kata ever, never, before, already dan yet.

Contoh : They have eaten their breakfast already. Mereka' sudah selesai memakan sarapan pagi mereka.

  • Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang telah terjadi.

Contoh: She has met your father. (Dia telah berjumpa ayahmu).

  • Digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu perbuatan atau peristiwa yang selesai dalam waktu singkat. Dalam hal ini sering dipakai kata-kata seperti at last, finally, just recently.

Contoh: She has just spoken to me.(Dia baru saja bicara denganku).

Penggunaan For dan Since
For (berarti selama) diikuti oleh lamanya waktu kejadian. Misalnya: for ten minutes (selama 10 menit), for a week (selama seminggu), etc. Sedangkan, since (berarti sejak) diikuti oleh kapan kejadian/aktivitas itu dimulai. Misalnya: since 1975 (sejak tahun 1975), since January (sejak bulan Januari), since 2 o’clock (sejak jam 2), etc.
Contoh :
  • We have studied English since a month ago. (Kita telah belajar bahasa Inggris sejak 1 bulan yang lalu).
  • We have studied English for a month. (Kita telah belajar bahasa Inggris selama 1 bulan).
Penggunaan already dan yet
  • Adverb already digunakan untuk mempertegas pernyatakan bahwa sesuatu telah atau belum terjadi pada waktu yang tidak spesifik di masa lampau. Already (telah/sudah) digunakan pada kalimat positif, sedangkan yet (belum) digunakan pada kalimat negatif dan kalimat tanya. Already biasanya diletakkan di antara auxiliary (has/have) dan verb3, tetapi bisa juga diletakkan diakhir kalimat tanpa merubah arti kalimat.
Contoh :
They have eaten their breakfast already.
They have already eaten their breakfast.
  • Adverb yet digunakan pada kalimat negative dan kalimat tanya, yang biasanya ditempatkan di akhir kalimat. Selain itu, yet juga bisa juga ditempatkan di tengah kalimat setelah has/have. Pada bentuk ini verb3 berubah menjadi infinitive (to + verb1).
Contoh:
Johana has not traveled around the world yet. Atau,
Johana has yet to travel around the world.

Dalam kalimat tanya, yet umumnya ditempatkan diakhir kalimat.
Contoh : Has Johana traveled around the world yet?

Tanda Waktu (Time Signal) :
Tanda waktu yang digunakan dalam Present Perfect Tense adalah sebagai berikut :
Tanda Waktu
Oncesekalitwicedua kali
Three timestiga kalimany timesberkali-kali
Several times beberapa kalithis weekminggu ini
This monthbulan inithis year tahun ini
already sudahjustbaru saja
as yetsampai sekarangso farsejauh ini
lately akhir-akhir iniup to the present times hingga kini
recently baru-baru inifinallyakhirnya
at last akhirnya since yesterdaysejak kemarin
nevertak pernaheverpernah

Degree of Comparison

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Degree of Comparison atau sering juga disebut dengan "Comparative Degree" adalah bentuk keterangan yang berfungsi untuk membandingkan kualitas, kondisi, besar dll dari satu benda dengan benda yang lainnya. Sebagaimana kita ketahui bahwa terdapat tiga tingkatan dalam Degrees of Comparison, pertama yaitu positive/negative comparison, kedua comparative dan yang terakhir adalah superlative.  Ada beberapa kaidah perubahan kata sifat menjadi tingkat lebih (comparative) dan tingkat paling (superlative).

1. Kata sifat dengan satu suku kata :
Kata sifat yang terdiri dari 1 suku kata, seperti old, tall, dan cheap, dan lain-lain kita hanya perlu dinambahkan akhiran "-er" untuk tingkat lebih (Comparative) dan akhiran "-est" untuk tingkat paling (Superlative). Namun ada beberapa kata yang memerlukan perubahan tertentu seperti di bawah ini :
Kata Sifat Satu Suku Kata
Adjectives Comparative SuperlativeArti
Tall Taller Tallesttinggi, lebih tinggi, paling tinggi
Cheap Cheaper Cheapestmurah, lebih murah, paling murah
Kata Sifat Berakhiran Vokal + r/st
Late Later Latesttelat, lebih telat, paling telat
Nice Nicer Nicestmanis, lebih manis, paling manis
Kata Sifat Berakhiran huurf y, y berubah jadi i + er/est
Angry Angrier Angriestmarah, lebih marah, paling marah
Lucky Luckier Luckiestberuntung, lebih beruntung, paling beruntung
Kata Sifat Berakhiran konsonan & didahului vokal huruf terakhir diulang +er/est
Fat Fatter Fattestgemuk, lebih gemuk, paling gemuk
Big Bigger Biggestbesar, lebih besar, paling besar
Thin Thinner Thinnestkurus, lebih kurus, paling kurus

Ada juga kata yang tidak mengikuti aturan di atas yaitu Irrigular Comparison. Irrigular comparison adalah pembentukan kata sifat untuk comperative dan superlative yang tidak mengikuti ketentuan-ketentuan di atas. Misalnya:
Irrigular Comparison
Adjectives Comparative SuperlativeArti
Good/Well Better Bestbaik, lebih baik, paling baik
Bad Worse Worstjelek, lebih jelek, paling jelek
Far Further/Farther Furthest/Farthestjauh, lebih jauh, paling jauh
Little Less Leastsedikit, lebih sedikit, paling sedikit
Old Older/Elder Oldest/Eldesttua, lebih tua, paling tua

2. Kata sifat yang lebih dari 2 suku kata
Kata sifat yang terdiri lebih dari 1 suku kata, maka kita perlu menambahkan kata "more" sebelum kata sifat untuk tingkat lebih (Comparative) dan "most" untuk tingkat paling (Superlative).
Kata Sifat lebih dari 2 suku kata
Adjectives Comparative SuperlativeArti
Beautiful more beautiful most beautifulcantik, lebih cantik, paling cantik
Expensive more expensive most expensivemahal, lebih mahal, paling mahal
Interesting more interesting most interestingmenarik, lebih menarik, paling menarik

3. Kata sifat yang berakhiran some, ow, le, dan er

Khusus kata sifat yang berakhiran "-some", "-ow", "-le", dan "-er", Anda dapat menambahkan kata "more" atau "er" sebelum kata benda untuk tingkat lebih (Comparative) dan "most" atau "est" untuk tingkat paling (Superlative). Namun pada umumnya, awalan "more" dan "most" paling banyak digunakan.
Kata Sifat lebih dari 2 suku kata
AdjectivesComparativeSuperlativeArti
Handsomemore handsome/ handsomermost handsome/ handsomesttampan, lebih tampan, paling tampan
Narrowmore narrow/ narrowermost narrow/ narrowestsempit, lebih sempit, paling sempit
Gentle more gentle/gentlermost gentle/gentlestlembut, lebih lembut, paling lembut
Clever more clever/cleverermost clever/cleverestpintar, lebih pintar, paling pintar

4. Kata sifat lainnya

Polite, quiet, wicked, pleasant, tired, cruel, stupid memiliki 2 jenis tingkat perbandingannya seperti yang berlaku pada kata sifat jenis no. 3. Namun, ada baiknya menggunakan more dan most untuk tingkat lebih dan tingkat paling-nya.

Contoh:
Her sister behaves more politely than she does.(Adiknya lebih sopan daripada dia)
She is the stupidest student in the class. (Dia adalah murid yang terbodoh di kelas itu)


5. Kata sifat yang tidak dapat dibuat tingkat perbandingannya. (Absolute Adjectives)
Absolute Adjectives, yaitu kata sifat yang tidak dapat digunakan dalam bentuk Comparative dan Superlative.

Contoh:
Wrong, right, single, empty, full, equal, correct, unique, universal, perfect, pregnant, dll.

Contoh:
My bucket is emptier than his. (My bucket is empty but his's not).

Perbandingan setara
Pada equality comparison ini, menggambarkan perbadinginan yang setara antara pembading dan yang dibandingakan. Terdapat dua jenis equality comparison yaitu Postive comparison dan Negative Comparison.

Positive Comparison
Rumus:
Subject + To be + As + Adjectives + Object
Contohnya:
- My hands were as cold as ice. (Tangan-tangan ku sedingin es)
- She is as beautiful as her mother.(Dia (pr) secantik ibunya)

Negative Comparison
Rumus:
Subject + To be + Not + As/so + Adjectives + Object
Contohnya:
- She is not as/so beautiful as her mother. (Dia (pr) tidak secantik ibunya.)
- Andi is not as/ so tall as Tomy. (Andi tidak setinggi Tomy.)

Comparative
Comparative adalah struktur kebahasaan dalam bahasa Inggris yang membandingkan satu orang/benda (tunggal) dengan satu orang/benda lainnya (tunggal). Biasanya dicirikan dengan adanya kata More/-er (lebih) dan Than (dari pada). Untuk mengetahui bagaimana membentuk adjectives yang mendapat imbuhan more/-er, lihat penjelasan di atas.

Rumus:
Subject + To be + More/-er + Adejctives + Than + Object
Contohnya:
- She is more beautiful than her mother. (Dia (pr) lebih cantik dari pada ibunya.)
- Angga is more handsome than Tomy. (Angga lebih tampan dari pada Tomy.)

Selain mengguankan rumus di atas, terdapat pula pola yang mencerminkan Comparative yaitu dengan pengguanaan The .... The ..., misalkan:
- The sooner the better. (Lebih cepat lebih baik.)
- The older I get, the happier I am. (Semakin tua, semakin bahagia saya.)
- The more dangerous it is, the more I like it. (Semakin berbahaya, semakin saya suka.)

Superlative
Superlative adalah struktur kebahasaan dalam bahasa Inggris yang membandingkan satu orang/ benda (tunggal) dengan orang/ benda yang lain (jamak). Biasanya dicirikan dengan adanya kata Most/-est (paling) dan artikel the sebelum kata most/-est. Untuk mengetahui bagaimana membentuk adjectives yang mendapat imbuhan most/-est, lihat penjelasan di atas.

Rumus :
Subject + To be + The + Most/-est + Adjective
Contohnya:
- She is the most beautiful creature in the world. (Dia adalah mahluk paling cantik di dunia.)
- I am the smartest students in the class. (Saya siswa paling cerdas di kelas.)

Present Continous Tense

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Present Continues Tense (Waktu sedang berlangsung sekarang).  Present Continues Tense ialah bentuk waktu yang digunakan untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung atau sedang dikerjakan. Ciri-ciri keterangan yang digunakan misalnya: now, right now, to day, this morning dan sebagainya.

Rumus:
BentukSubyek (s) Rumus
Positive(+) Interogative(?)Negative(-)
Present Continous TenseIS+am+v1(ing)Am+S+v1(ing)S+am+not+v1(ing)
He, She, ItS+is+v1(ing)Is+S+v1(ing)S+is+not+v1(ing)
You, We, TheyS+are+v1(ing)Are+S+v1(ing)S+are+not+v1(ing)

Contoh:
  • They are playing volley ball now.  Sekarang mereka sedang bermain bola voley.
  • Are they playing volley ball now ?
  • They are not playing volley ball now.

Penggunaan Present Continuous Tense :
  • Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung.  Contoh: They are playing badminton now.
  • Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang bersifat sementara.  Contoh: I am studying now but I will go out soon.
  • Digunakan untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang berlangsung untuk masa yang akan datang. Contoh: They are playing again in a few days.

Untuk Kata Kerja yang Melukiskan Perasaan (Verb of Emotion) :
Jika kata kerja di dalam bentuk Present Continuous Tense melukiskan perasaan seperti dislike, like, want dan lain-lain, maka tidak boleh ditambahkan -ing dan To Be walaupun pengucapan kalimat nya pada saat sedang berlangsungnya peristiwa.

Contoh:
I am liking   like Mr. Ronaldo.  

Untuk Kata Kerja yang Menyatakan Pikiran atau Pendapat (Verb of Thought or Opinion):

Jika kata kerja di dalam bentuk Present Continuous Tense menyatakan pikiran atau pendapat seperti forget, believe, expect, prefer, remember, realize, know dan lain-lain, maka tidak boleh ditambahkan -ing dan To Be.

Contoh:
Gani believing believe she would come here. 

Untuk Kata Kerja  yang Berhubungan dengan Panca Indera (Verb of Sense);

Jika kata kerja di dalam bentuk Present Continuous Tense berhubungan dengan panca indera seperti see, hear, smell, notice, taste dan lain-lain, maka tidak boleh ditambahkan -ing dan To Be

Contoh:
The food smelling smell really good.

Untuk Kata Kerja yang Menunjukkan Kepunyaan (Verb of Possession):

Jika kata kerja di dalam Present Continuous Tense menunjukkan kepunyaan seperti belong to, owe, own dan lain-lain, maka tidak boleh ditambahkan -ing dan To Be.

Contoh:
Mr. Gondo owning owns two cars.  
Pembentukan Kata Kerja Dasar yang ditambah -ing (Present Participle) dalam Present Continuous Tense :
Pada umumnya Infinitive (kata kerja dasar) ditambahkan -ing.
to cutcutingmemotongto givegivingmemberi
Kata kerja dua suku kata berakhiran konsonan, didahului vokal, tekanan jatuh pada suku terakhir, huruf terakhir digandakan dan ditambah -ing
to beginbeginning memulai to submitsubmittingmengajukan
Kata kerja berakhiran i dan didahului dua huruf vokal ditambah -ing
to conceal concealingmerahasiakanto sail sailing berlayar
Kata kerja berakhiran e dan didahului e, ditambah -ing
to see seingmelihatto fleefleingkabur
Kata kerja berakhiran konsonan, didajului vokal, satu suku kata, huruf terakhir digandakan dan ditambah -ing
to swimawimmingberenangto cuttcuttingmemotong
Kata kerja berakhiran l , didahului vokal , huruf terakhir digandakan dan ditambah -ing
to traveltravellingbepergianto controlcontrollingmengawasi
Kata kerja berakhiran e , didahului huruf i , huruf terakhir dihilangkan dan ditambah -ing
to comecomingdatangto writewritingmenulis
Kata kerja berakhiran e, didahului vokal , huruf ie diganti y dan ditambah -ing
to lielayingberdustato diedyingmati

Tanda Waktu (Time Signal)
Tanda waktu yang digunakan dalam Present Continuous Tense adalah sebagai berikut:
Tanda Waktu
nowsekarangthis morningpagi iniright nowsaat ini
this afternoonsore iniat presentpada saat ini tonightmalam ini
today  hari initomorrowbesoksoon  segera

Simple Present Tense

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Simple Present Tense. Simple Present (Kebiasaan/sederhana sekarang). Simple Present adalah bentuk waktu yang digunakan untuk menyatakan perbuatan. Dimana perbuatan itu sedang dikenakan atau sesuatu yang merupakan kebiasaan sehari-hari. Ciri-ciri keterangannya antara lain every day, every Sunday, every month, every year, every week, dan lain-lain.

Rumus Simple Present Tense

Contoh Bentuk Nominal
  • He is here every Sunday. ( Dia berada disini setiap hari Minggu).
  • Is he here every Sunday ?
  • He is not here every Sunday.

Contoh Bentuk Verbal
  • They study Math at school.( Mereka belajar matematika di Sekolah).
  • Do they study Math at school ?
  • They do not study Math at school.

Berikut ini contoh bentuk kalimat dengan menggunakan be, tanpa kata kerja bantu (do/does).
Bentuk Subyekverb
+ I am Indonesian
You, we, they are Indonesian
He, she, it is Indonesian
- I am not old.
You, we, they are not old.
He, she, it is not old.
? Am I late?
Are you, we, they late?
Is he, she, it late?

Penggunaan Simple Present Tense
  • Dipergunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang menjadi kebiasaan (habitual action).

Contoh:
1. They go to school every day. ( Mereka pergi ke sekolah setiap hari).
2. He goes to the office at 6 o’clock. ( Dia pergi ke kantor pada jam 6).

  • Dipergunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kebenaran umum (general truth).

Contoh:
1. The sun sets in the west (Matahari terbenam di sebelah barat)
2. The world is around. ( Dunia (adalah) bulat).

Kalimat pada Bentuk Verbal adalah Kalimat Berita (Affirmative) :

Jika kalimat pada bentuk verbal adalah kalimat berita dan subjectnya orang ketiga tunggal (ke/she/it), maka kata kerja dasar yang digunakan akan mengalami perubahan sebagai berikut:
Pada umumnya Infinitive (kata kerja dasar) ditambahkan –s.
to cutcutsmemotongdigdigsmenggali
Kata kerja dasar yang berakhiran ch, sh, s dan x ditambah –es
to teachteachesmengajarto washwashesmencuci
to kisskissesmenciumto mixmixesmengaduk
Kata kerja dasar yang berakhiran o ditambah –es
to dodoesmengerjakanto gogoespergi
Kata kerja dasar yang berakhiran vokal e dan l ditambah –s
to useusesmenggunakanto killkillsmembunuh
Kata kerja dasar berakhiran y yang didahului konsonan diganti i + -es
to flyfliesterbangto studystudiesbelajar
Kata kerja dasar berakhiran y yang didahului vokal diganti ditambah -es
to buybuysmembelito paypaysmembayar

Tanda Waktu
Tanda waktu (Time Signal) yang biasa dipergunakan dalam bentuk Simple Present Tense adalah sebagai berikut:
Tanda Waktu
alwaysselalusometimeskadang-kadangevery Sundaytiap hr Minggu
as a rulelazimnya seldomjarang every weektiap Minggu
generally umumnya now dayssaat sekarang now and thenkadangkala
normally biasanya steadilyterusmenerus occasionallykadang-kadang
usually biasanyafrequentlyseringkali kadang-kadang
often seringkali heredi sini once in a whilesekali-sekali
nevertak pernah theredisana twice a year 2 kali setahun
regularly secara teratur every daytiap hari once in a weeksekali seminggu

Daftar Irregular Verb

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Daftar Irregular Verb. Irregular verb atau kata kerja tak beraturan. Kata kerja atau verba akan mengalami perubahan bentuk sesuai dengan tenses dalam kalimat. Ada dua jenis perubahan bentuk kata kerja yaitu regular verbs (kata kerja teratur) dan irregular verbs (kata kerja tidak teratur). Untuk kata kerja yang beraturan, bentuk ke-2 dan ke-3 nya dapat dibuat cukup dengan menambahkan akhiran "ed". Irregular verb terdiri dari tiga bentuk, yaitu : verb 1 (bentuk awal), verb 2 (bentuk lampau), dan verb 3 (bentuk ketiga/past participle).

Perubahan kata kerja dalam suatu kalimat tergantung dari tenses yang digunakan. Hal ini akan menentukan kata kerja yang dipakai apakah kata kerja bentuk pertama atau dasar (base verb), bentuk kedua (past) atau bentuk ketiga (past participle). Secara umum bentuk irregular verb adalah : 1) Kata yang bentuk dasar, bentuk kedua, dan bentuk ketiganya sama. 2) Kata yang bentuk kedua dan bentuk ketiganya sama, tetapi berbeda bentuk dengan bentuk dasar, dan 3) Kata yang bentuk dasar, bentuk kedua, dan bentuk ketiganya berbeda. Berikut ini daftar irregular verb :
(Verb 1) Verb 2 Verb 3 Arti
A
abide abided / abode abided tinggal, tunduk, patuh
alight alighted / alit alighted / alit turun, hinggap, menghinggapi, mendarat
arise arose arisen timbul, muncul, bangun
awake awakened / awoke awakened / awoken bangun, sadar, membangunkan, mengetahui
B
backbite backbit backbitten memfitnah
backslide backslid backslidden / backslid kembali mengerjakan kebiasaan lama yg tercela
be  was, were been
bear bore born / borne menanggung, menahan, melahirkan
beat beat beaten / beat mengalahkan, memukul, berdenyut
become became become menjadi
befall befell befallen menimpa
beget begat / begot begotten memperanakkan, menurunkan
begin began begun mulai, memulai
behold beheld beheld melihat
bend bent bent membungkuk, menekuk, membengkokkan
bereave bereaved / bereft bereaved / bereft kehilangan
beseech besought / beseeched besought / beseeched mohon, memohon, meminta, memohonkan
beset beset beset menimpa, mengelilingi, menyerang, mengapung
bestrew bestrewed bestrewn / bestrewed menabur
bet bet / betted bet / betted bertaruh
betake betook betaken berangkat, pergi
bethink bethought bethought memikirkan, mengingat
bid (farewell) bid / bade bidden tawaran (perpisahan)
bid (offer amount) bid bid menawar(nilai tawaran)
bind bound bound mengikat, membalut, menjilid
bite bit bitten menggigit
bleed bled bled berdarah, berkorban
blow blew blown meniup
break broke broken memecahkan, mematahkan, melanggar, memutuskan, menghentikan, membobol
breed bred bred berkembang biak
bring brought brought membawa
broadcast broadcast / broadcasted broadcast / broadcasted menyiarkan
browbeat browbeat browbeaten / browbeat menggertak, menakuti
build built built membangun
burn burned / burnt burned / burnt membakar
burst burst burst meledak
bust busted / bust busted / bust gagal, mendobrak, meledak
buy bought bought membeli






Membuat Kalimat Tanya

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Membuat Kalimat Tanya. Ketika kita berbicara kadang-kadang membutuhkan kalimat pertanyaan. Kalimat tanya adalah kalimat yang mengandung suatu permintaan agar penanya diberi informasi mengenai suatu hal. Mungkin sudah banyak yang mengerti cara membuat atau menggunakan kalimat pertanyaan baik itu dalam teks tertulis ataupun percakapan sehari-hari. Namun begitu tidak ada salahnya jika disini saya kutip 8 aturan dasar dalam membentuk kalimat tanya tersebut seperti yang saya adaptasi dari tulisan Swan (2005: 465-466) di bawah ini:

1. Auxiliary verb harus terletak sebelum subyek
Dalam kalimat tanya (interrogative sentence), secara umum auxiliary verb memang harus terletak sebelum subyek. Auxiliary verbs adalah kata kerja bantu yang secara gramatikal berfungsi membentuk atau memberi tambahan arti pada kalimat. Umumnya auxiliary verbs digunakan bersama-sama dengan kata kerja utama (main verbs) dan membantunya membentuk struktur gramatikal sebuah kalimat. Ada tiga auxiliary verbs: to be, to do, dan to have. Be, do, dan have tidak mempunyai makna jika berdiri sendiri sebagai auxiliary verbs, meskipun begitu dalam bahasa Indonesia umumnya diartikan sebagai “sedang”, “telah”, “apakah”, atau “sungguh-sungguh”.

Contoh:
  • Have you received my letter of June 17 ?
  • When is Oliver leaving ?
  • Why are you laughing ?
  • What are all of those people looking at?
2. Gunakan do, does dan did jika tidak ada auxiliary verb.
Ketika sebuah kalimat pernyataan (declarative sentence) akan dijadikan kalimat pertanyaan (interrogative sentence), jika dalam kalimat tersebut tidak memiliki auxiliary semisal pada simple sentence dan simple past, maka kalimat pertanyaan tersebut harus diganti dengan do, does atau did.
  • Do digunakan pada kalimat simple present tense jika subject-nya plural. Plural subject yang dimaksud adalah I, we, you, they, dan nouns yang dapat digantikan dengan I, we, you, atau they.
  • Does adalah bentuk singular dari verb1 Do. Does digunakan pada kalimat present tense jika subjectnya singular. Yang dimasud dengan singular subject adalah he, she, it dan nouns yang dapat digantikan dengan he, she atau it.
  • Kata kerja Did hanya dapat digunakan pada kalimat simple past tense. Bentuknya tetap Did walaupun subjectnya singular maupun plural.
Contoh:
  • Do you like Mozart? (bukan like you Mozart?)
  • What does ‘periphrastic’ mean? (bukan what means ‘periphrastic’?)
  • Did you wash the car today? (bukan you wash washed the car?)
3. Jangan mendampingkan do dengan auxiliary verb yang lain.
Do tidak digunakan dengan auxiliary verb yang lain maupun dengan be.

Contoh:
  • Can you tell me the time? (bukan do you can tell me the time?)
  • Have you seen John? (bukan do you have seen John?)
  • Are you ready (bukan do you are ready?)

4. Gunakan Bare Infinitive dalam kalimat tanya yang ber-auxiliary do, does dan did.
Setelah do, does dan did sebagai auxiliary memang harus diletakkan sebelum subyek (lihat point 5 di bawah), dan setelah subyek tersebut maka lexical verb atau ordinary verb (kata kerja utama kalimat) tersebut harus menggunakan bare infinitive (kata kerja murni tidak ditambah s, es, ed, atau ing) dengan kata lain tidak berubah menjadi past form (kata kerja bentuk kedua), past participle (kata kerja bentuk ketiga) dan juga past participle (kata kerja yang diakhiri –ing <v-ing>)

Contoh:
  • What does the boss want? (bukan what does the boss wants?)
  • Did you go climbing last weekend? (bukan did you went climbing last weekend?)

5. Hanya auxiliary verb yang terletak sebelum subyek.
Seperti penjelasan point ke-1 diatas, hanya auxiliary verb yang terletak sebelum subyek. Artinya, ordinary verb atau kata kerja utama tetap terletak setelah subyek.

Contoh:
  • Is your mother coming tomorrow? (bukan is coming your mother tomorrow?)
  • Is your daughter having a lesson today (bukan is having your daughter tomorrow?)
  • When was your reservation made? (bukan when was made your reservation?)

6. Ketika who, which, what, atau whose adalah subyek (atau bagian dari subyek), maka do
tidak digunakan.
Seperti dijelaskan di point ke-2, jangan gunakan do jika tidak ada auxiliary verb yang lain. Namun hal tersebut tidak berlaku jika diawali oleh who, which, what ataupun whose yang difungsikan sebagai kata tanya yang menanyakan subyek.

Contoh:
  • Who phoned? (who adalah subyek, maka do, does, atau did dihilangkan) bandingkan dengan kalimat pertanyaan di bawah ini:
  • Who did you phone? (did ditambahkan karena menanyakan obyek)

7. Dalam indirect question (kalimat tanya tidak langsung) letakkan auxiliary verb setelah
subyek.
Dengan kata lain kembali menjadi declarative sentence alias kalimat pernyataan, sehingga dengan demikian secara otomatis tanda tanya (?) harus dihilangkan.

Contoh

  • Tell me when you are leaving. (bukan tell me when are you leaving?)
8. Preposition (kata depan) diletakkan di akhir wh-questions.
Yang dimaksud dengan An Information Question atau lebih dikenal dengan Wh-Question adalah bentuk kalimat bertanya yang mana jawabannya membutuhkan informasi atau penjelasan. Jenis Kalimat bertanya ini dibagi atas 9 bagian :
1. When : digunakan untuk menanyakan waktu.
2. Where : digunakan untuk menanyakan tempat.
3. Why : digunakan untuk menanyakan alasan.
4. How : digunakan untuk menanyakan cara (cara sesuatu dikerjakan), dan juga bisa
digunakan untuk kata sifat (adjective) atau kata keterangan (adverb).
5. Who : digunakan untuk menanyakan subject kalimat (khusus manusia) yang juga
mempunyai arti siapa.
6. Whom : digunakan untuk menanyakan objek kalimat (Khusus manusia) yang juga
mempunyai arti siapa.
7. Whose : digunakan untuk menanyakan kepemilikan.
8. What : digunakan untuk menanyakan subject atau object dari pertanyaan / kalimat
mengacu pada benda, dan mempunyai arti apa, seperti apa, jenis apa (type), dsb.
9. Which : digunakan untuk menanyakan yang mana.

Umumnya, ketika membuat kalimat tanya jenis wh-question, preposition atau kata depan diletakkan di akhir kalimat.

Contoh:
  • What are you talking about? (bukan about what are you talking?)
  • Who did you buy the tickets from?
  • What did you clean the floor with?

Macam-macam Tenses

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Tenses adalah tata kalimat, yaitu suatu pola kalimat yang digunakan dalam penyusunan kalimat bahasa Inggris. Tanpa pola kalimat, kita akan sulit membuat kalimat yang benar, dan mungkin akan keliru. Maka kita harus mempelajari pola kalimat yang benar agar mudah membuat kalimat bahasa Inggris. Tenses terbagi dalam berbagai macam bentuk, ada bentuk lampau, bentuk masa sekarang, dan bentuk masa datang. Dalam tiga macam kategori tenses itu, terbagi pula beberapa pola kalimat yang berbeda. Berikut adalah 16 tenses bahasa inggris yang akan kita pelajari, mari kita bahas satu persatu.

1. Present Tense
  • Simple present tense, Simple Present Tense adalah tenses yang paling banyak digunakan, dan karena paling banyak maka pembahasannya juga akan lebih panjang. Arti simple yaitu sederhana, sedangkan present adalah sekarang. Jadi bisa dikatakan bahwa Simple Present adalah tenses (pola kalimat) yang digunakan untuk menceritakan waktu sekarang dalam bentuk sederhana.
  • Present Continuous tense, Present Continuous tense dalam tenses bahasa inggris digunakan untuk tindakan yang sedang berlangsung sekarang, kejadian di waktu sedang berbicara dan tindakan yang berlangsung hanya untuk jangka waktu yang singkat. Present Continuous tense disebut juga dengan Present Progressive Tense.
  • Present Perfect tense, Bentuk Present Perfect tense dalam tenses bahasa inggris digunakan untuk suatu tindakan sederhana yang masih berlangsung atau yang baru sajar berhenti, tetapi memiliki pengaruh hingga masa kini. Menempatkan penekanan pada hasil.
  • Present Perfect Continuous tense. Present Perfect Continuous mengungkapkan tindakan yang telah dimulai di masa lalu dan sekarang masih berlanjut. Tenses bahasa inggris ini juga digunakan untuk menceritakan kejadian yang dimulai dimasa lalu dan baru saja selesai.

2. Past Tenses
  • Simple Past tense. Simple past Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang telah terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lalu. kejadian bisa pendek atau panjang. Berarti juga bisa menjadi beberapa kejadian terjadi satu demi persatu. Secara umum, Ada dua fakta penting yang perlu diingat dalam tenses bahasa inggris ini : kata kerja tak beraturan (Irregular Verbs), kalimat negatif dan pertanyaan tidak seperti kalimat positif tetapi mempertahankan bentuk dasar kata kerja
  • Past Continuous tense. Past Continuous Tense mengungkapkan tindakan di masa lalu yang sedang berlangsung. tindakan kadang dapat juga disela oleh sesuatu. bentuk tenses bahasa inggris ini disebut juga Past Progressive Tense.
  • Past Perfect Tense, Kita menggunakan Past Pefect (simple) tense untuk menunjukkan suatu tindakan di masa lalu berkaitan dengan tindakan lain sebelumnya di masa lalu.
  • Past Perfect Continuous tense. Perfect Continuous Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu tindakan yang dimulai di masa lalu dan berlangsung sampai tindakan lain yang di masa lalu. Perbedaan antara Present Perfect Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous adalah : Present Perfect Continuous mengungkapkan tindakan yang terus berlanjut sampai sekarang sedangkan Past Perfect Continuous tidak.

3. (Present) Future Tenses
  • (Present) Simple Future tense. Simple Future adalah yang paling umum, digunakan dalam banyak situasi seperti ketika membuat janji, prediksi atau rencana. Future Tense disebut juga dengan Present Future Tense Simple Future Tense dibagi menjadi dua bentuk yaitu “Will/shall” dan “going to” tetapi memiliki perbedaan penggunaan. “going to” digunakan dalam mengucapkan suatu rencana tindakan yg telah dibuat jauh-jauh sebelum berbicara. Juga digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu prediksi berdasarkan tanda-tanda saat ini (pasti terjadi kemungkinan besar) “going to” juga dikenal dalam kata “gonna” yang sering digunakan dalam situasi tidak resmi. “will” digunakan dalam mengucapkan suatu rencana tindakan yang baru saja kamu pikirkan/belum direncanakan/spontanitas saat berbicara.juga digunakan untuk mengungkapkan ramalan yg akan terjadi berdasarkan perhitungan atau perasaan (belum tentu kepastiannya).
  • (Present) Future Continuous tense. Future Continuous tense umumnya digunakan untuk menandakan bahwa kita akan berada ditengah-tengah suatu kejadian dalam waktu tertentu di masa depan. Future Continuous dikenal juga dengan sebutan Present Future Continuous. Future Continuous juga memiliki 2 bentuk yaitu “will” dan “going to” memiliki makna yang sama dan bisa saling menggantikan saat digunakan. Berbeda dengan penggunaan pada simple future tense.
  • (Present) Future Perfect tense Kita menggunakan Future Perfect tenses bahasa inggris ini untuk menyatakan kejadian yang akan selesai dimasa depan yang sudah dimulai dimasa lalu. Future Perfect disebut juga Present Future Perfect Tense atau Future Perfect Simple Tense.
  • (Present) Future Perfect Continuous Tense Kita menggunakan Future Perfect Continuous tenses bahasa inggris ini untuk menceritakan kejadian yang akan berlangsung pada waktu tertentu di masa depan. Future Perfect Continuous Tense dikenal juga dengan sebutan Present Future Perfect Continuous atau Future Perfect Progressive.

4. Conditional / Past Future Tense
  • (Simple) Conditional / Past Future tense Simple Past Future Tense ini digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang akan terjadi pada masa lalu (bukan masa sekarang, kebalikan dari simple future tense).
  • Conditional / Past Future Continuous tense Kita menggunakan Past Future Continuous atau Past Future Progressive tense bahasa inggris ini untuk menceritakan suatu tindakan yang akan sedang terjadi pada masa lalu ( untuk yang sedang terjadi di masa sekarang disebut Future Continuous Tense).
  • Conditional / Past Future Perfect tense Past Future Pefect Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan tindakan yang akan sudah selesai di masa lalu (silahkan bandingkan perbedaannya dengan Future Perfect Tense).
  • Conditional / Past Future Perfect Continuous tense Tense bahasa inggris terakhir ini digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang akan sudah sedang terjadi pada masa lalu. Past future perfect continuous tense memiliki persamaan dengan future perfect continuous tense.
Berikut ini rumus kalimat positive, negative dan interrogative masing-masing tense
TensesPositiveNegativeInterrogative
Present TenseS + V1 (s/es)S+Do/Does+Not + V1D0/Does + S + V1
Present Continuous TenseS + Tobe + VingS + Tobe+ Not+ VingTobe + S + Ving
Present Perfect TenseS + have/has + V3S + have/sas Not + V3Have/has + S + V3
Present Perfect Continuous TenseS+have/has+been+VingS+have/has+not+been +VingHave/has + S + been + Ving
Past Tense S + V2S + did not + V1Did + S + V1
Past Continuous TenseS + was/were + VingS+was/were+Not+VingWas/Were + S + Ving
Past Perfect TenseS + had + V3S + had + not + V3Had + S + V3
Past Perfect Continuous TenseS + had + been + VingS + had + not + been + VingHad + S + been + Ving
Future TenseS + will + V1S + will + not + V1Will + S + V1
Future Continuous TenseS + will + be + VingS +will not + be + Ving Will + S + be + Ving
Future Perfect TenseS + will + have + V3S+will+not+have+V3Will + S + have + V3
Past Perfect Continuous TenseS + had + been + VingS + had + not + been + VingHad + S + been + Ving
Past Future TenseS + would + V1S + would + not + V1Would + S + V1
Past Future Continuous TenseS + would + be + VingS + would + not + be + VingWould + S + be + Ving
Past Future Prefect TenseS + would + have + V3S + would + not + have + V3 Would + S + have +V3
Past Future Perfect Continuous TenseS + would + have + been + VingS + would + not + have + been + VingWould + S + have + been + Ving